Actually Setting

Actually Setting

The anatomy of a crossword

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Prior to this year’s Times Crossword Championship Dave and I had never met, but we quickly fell into conversation and I reckon I spent more time talking to Dave than anyone else. At some point the conversation turned to what it is a setter actually does when putting together a puzzle, and I said something – can’t remember exactly what – that must have come as something of a surprise. We both realised that there doesn’t currently seem to be a published in-depth description of the nuts and bolts processes of crossword setting. Yes, there’s plenty of “technical stuff”. And – a thought that just suddenly occurred to me – Tim Moorey gives some page space to it in his “How To Master The Times Crossword”; but that excellent book is primarily a guide to solving and the setting section restricts itself to describing the sorts of wordplay devices a setter looks for.

Dave very kindly invited me to put into words what I now find myself struggling to put into words – perhaps this is a cop-out, but I’m going to describe it as the “feeling” behind the creation of a cryptic crossword.

Let’s start by mentioning that I set for The Times and The Independent. That isn’t intended as self-promotion. I’ve mentioned it because these two crossword series have fundamentally different starting points. The Times provides its setting team with a stock of pre-designed grids; The Independent allows its setters to design their own. Before explaining why that’s so important, I’ll just answer a question that does get asked quite a lot:

Do you have a stock of clues?

For me the answer is yes, but it’s a very modest stock. A quick glance at my Excel document shows just 71 “waiting” clues, and these are not always in ready-to-use state. Often, I’ll have spotted the potential for exploiting a particular piece of wordplay and will have found an example of an answer where it can be used, but it’s effectively a sketch – a concept that needs honing into something that would be approved by an editor. Only about half of these waiting clues are of a form I’d be prepared to use.

Why so few? To be honest I’m not sure. It may be that I have a sort of temporary relationship with a clue idea, one that fades over time. So a clue that sits unused for several months gradually loses its appeal; it felt like a good idea at the time, but now…

The grids

If you have the freedom to design your own grid it’s very tempting to raid the database and throw in as many as possible, which of course is an invitation to disaster. Firstly, you end up with an extremely clever but probably unsolvable crossword. Secondly, you run out of clues. However, this freedom of grid design means that placing one humdinger doesn’t necessarily inhibit a successful grid fill – if things get a bit sticky you can make changes. On set grids much more care is needed. It may surprise many to be told that the deliberate placement of just two database clues can pretty much dictate how the rest of the fill falls into place, and there’s nothing worse than finding that the only possible answer at 4Down is QUIZZICALITY.

How do you fill a grid?

Crossword software makes the grid fill potentially a very easy process. You can do it by clicking a button. But I very much doubt that any setter does that, because an essential part of choosing answers is getting a feel for what kind of wordplay potential exists. That doesn’t necessarily mean having a clue in mind straightaway – mostly it’s simply a case of seeing that arrangement of letters and getting a feel for how easily or otherwise they can be dealt with. Unless I had a miraculous brainwave, I can’t imagine seeing QUIZZICALITY in a list of placeable candidates and plumping for it – I’d look for something a bit friendlier.

Do you start writing clues only after filling the grid?

No. There will be a small number of answers for which a clue has sprung to mind immediately, and I’ll get these written while the ideas are fresh. In a grid of 28 answers that may account for around half a dozen, but I have to be happy that these answers are not going to change. The grid fill can fall apart at a late stage and, while written clues can be added to the database if it turns out their answers have to be changed, it’s still very disappointing when it happens. So I tend to get the grid complete with a few clues written, and only then start work on the rest.

Do you start at 1 Across and work through clues in order?

Another no. Editors set limits on certain types of wordplay – in The Times, for example, each puzzle has a maximum number of full or part anagrams. As setters we also try to get a good balance of charades, containers, double definitions etc etc, and we like to spread them throughout the puzzle. If you start at the first across answer and use one type of wordplay because it happens to create a reasonably good clue, you may later find yourself unable to use that device to far greater effect elsewhere because you’ve used up your ration of that wordplay type. This is particularly true of anagrams in a puzzle with perhaps four long answers. I’m always looking to not use anagrams for these (sometimes it feels like an easy escape) but there are occasions when you’re either forced into it because the answer won’t break down into components, or it just happens that you discover a wonderful anagram that’s too good to resist. But I’m always aware that clues to long answers need to be satisfying to solve, so these get the fullest attention and I try to get them written as soon as possible – and I always keep a tally of which wordplay devices have been used.

My next task is to look over the remaining unclued answers and try to spot what I call “hooks” – little things that stand out as offering good clue potential. As soon as I see something I try to get the clue written, although sometimes it’s a case of just noting an idea to be returned to later.

How long does it take to get a full set of clues?

In a 28-answer puzzle I’ll have the grid filled and, typically, around 24 clues written in two days but, no matter how well I think I’ve chosen the answers, I will always end up with four or five problem clues where I just can’t see anything. It is by no means unusual to spend three or four days just getting this little grouping polished off. That sounds like some kind of hell and, to a degree, I suppose it is. Ultimately, though, it can prove to be extremely rewarding, because discovering a really good clue to an apparently intractable set of letters can be genuinely thrilling. I always find myself banging on about a clue I wrote for EXPORT DUTY [Charge traffic cops on departure (6,4)] , but only because it’s such a great example of how despair can turn into utter delight. I must have spent two days on that one, but when the clue finally fell into my lap it turned out to be perhaps the best of the set for that puzzle.

That, for me, is the real buzz about crossword setting, the thing that makes the mental punishment worthwhile. Those database clues that got me started on the grid fill – well, in a way it’s a little bit like cheating, but in truth it’s no worse than a student going into a lecture having done his homework. The actual creation of cryptic clues is not confined to building a crossword; indeed many setters ensure that, wherever they are, they have some means of jotting down wordplay ideas. You can be walking along your local high street and spot a word on a poster and notice something about it that’s interesting – and you’re not likely to have a crossword grid in your hand when it happens. So these little snippets of cleverness can muscle their way in at the beginning of a crossword, but the greatest satisfaction comes when you find a really good clue against the odds.

No – actually I’m lying. The greatest satisfaction comes when solvers tell you they’ve enjoyed the torture you’ve inflicted on them. Everybody has good and bad things to say about the Internet, but thanks to its presence in our lives there is a level of communication between solvers and setters that didn’t exist even ten or fifteen years ago. Yes, the Internet was around, but it still felt pretty experimental and unsophisticated, and active contribution to blogs was by no means common. For many setters now, though, the exchanges of praise, criticism, questions, comment – even simple contact – has turned this strange little world we inhabit into a thriving and enthusiastic community.

What you have to remember is that setting crosswords is – it has to be – a very solitary occupation. A ringing telephone can utterly destroy the thought processes. It is thanks to the blogs and crossword websites that we recluses keep in contact with those who share our passion for wordplay.

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Anax was responsible for the third crossword in the 2009 Times Crossword Championship Grand Final, which you can access from here

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23 Comments

  1. Posted October 12, 2009 at 7:38 pm | Permalink

    A splendid article by a very fine setter.

  2. sarumite
    Posted October 12, 2009 at 9:45 pm | Permalink

    Thanks for this informative insight into the setter’s thought processes, and the many intricacies that are brought into play en route to constructing our daily cryptics.

    As an “exercise,” I’m tempted to have a bash myself, purely for the enjoyment of course. :smile:

  3. nanaglugglug
    Posted October 12, 2009 at 10:53 pm | Permalink

    And I thought you just sat down with your cup of tea, and produced these miracles! Come on, Tilsit – where your promised grid? Fascinating stuff, thanks very much.

  4. Anax
    Posted October 12, 2009 at 11:23 pm | Permalink

    Thank you very much for the comments guys. There’s something I meant to include – trying to talk about everything involved in puzzle setting would have resulted in something ridiculously long, so there may well be unmentioned stuff you’d like to know. Feel free to ask!

  5. lab
    Posted October 13, 2009 at 1:04 am | Permalink

    fascinating! Thank you

  6. gnomethang
    Posted October 13, 2009 at 10:27 am | Permalink

    I loved this insight. I’m really glad that you mention that it is a very ‘Feely’ process. I have attempted to create my own puzzles but have failed epically to even fill up a grid – never mind actually getting my preferred clues in!.

    • Anax
      Posted October 13, 2009 at 10:39 am | Permalink

      Filling a grid can be daunting when you’re starting out because it takes a while to understand how certain intersecting letters can be good/bad for the process. That skill will come, believe me, and you’ll be glad when it does. The main pleasure comes in writing the clues, and eventually you’ll find you can get the “chore” of the grid fill done in less than an hour.
      When it comes to writing the clues, please DO be influenced by what other setters do. A truly wonderful training process is to move outside your own crossword for a while and take part in (or just watch!) clue-writing contests. I’ve been setting cryptics for around 30 years, but my technique has improved dramatically over the past couple years thanks to this (and its predecessor):
      http://www.ukpuzzle.com/phpBB3/index.php
      It’s a wekly clue-writing thing, but all very friendly and informal – and I promise you will be astounded by what clue enthusiasts (these are not professional setters) can do.

      • gnomethang
        Posted October 13, 2009 at 10:41 am | Permalink

        I just had a look at your Number 3 puzzle in the Times Grand Final. There was one there that resonates with me but I went the other way:

        Move quietly into the strange abyss, or go round it (6).

        I will check the link, thanks!.

        • Anax
          Posted October 13, 2009 at 11:07 am | Permalink

          That’s a remarkably good clue! It’s of a standard which I suspect would pass muster in the Telegraph, possibly the Guardian too. Times/Independent might be different.
          For some “move” might be considered extraneous; there is a possible move/put link, but some editors might not think it’s tight enough. Equally, an editor having a bit of an off day might question whether the “the” of “the strange” is unnecessary padding but, to be honest, you’d probably be right to fight your corner on that one as its presence doesn’t do any harm. The def “or go round it” might wing its way back for an amendment – my take on it would be that, while it can loosely tie in with the surface reading of the wordplay, the connection probably isn’t logically sound.
          THE IMPORTANT THING is that you’ve identified good wordplay components and you’ve seen a way in which they can interact. Chambers Crossword Dictionary is a really useful tool for discovering alternative meanings for answer and wordplay elements – it has 18 entries at BYPASS, some of them rather dodgy but, more importantly, some common interpretations that hadn’t sprung to mind as I’d been considering the answer. It also has an excellent section covering anagrinds , inserticators(!), reversals etc, which constantly throws up welcome suprises.
          Keep at it. It’s clear from your example that you know how to write a cryptic clue.

  7. Lea
    Posted October 13, 2009 at 10:31 am | Permalink

    Thank you for such an interesting article. It is heartening to know that setters often take time to polish off the wordplay.

    As a newbie solver it is learning the rules that makes it so interesting and satisfying..

  8. Posted October 13, 2009 at 3:53 pm | Permalink

    More thanks to Anax for this explanation – there are various other descriptions around but they tend to focus on individual clues rather than the process as a whole. Anax’s UKPuzzles site is well worth a look – my first look at it produced a little saga retold on the Times blog a couple of years ago – see http://community.livejournal.com/times_xwd_times/117065.html

  9. Ann Dovekey
    Posted October 16, 2009 at 3:18 pm | Permalink

    Great article thanks.

    One question though: could you please explain the EXPORT DUTY clue? I’m a bit lost!!

    Thanks again for a superb insight from the other side of the trenches!

    • Posted October 16, 2009 at 3:41 pm | Permalink

      Hi Ann and welcome to the blog.
      Sorry for the delay in your comment appearing. All “first posts” have to be moderated to check for spam. Any future comments you make will appear straight away.
      I expect Anax will be along to answer your query shortly.

    • Posted October 16, 2009 at 3:46 pm | Permalink

      Happy to explain it (although please bear in mind – explain and justify aren’t necessarily the same thing! You may end up groaning a bit). Here’s the clue again:

      Charge traffic cops on departure (6,4)

      The answer is EXPORT DUTY and the clue is a cryptic definition only – no anagrams, charades or similar mullarkey. Perhaps the best way to explain it is to write it again in a more explicit format:

      EXPORT DUTY is the charge (fee/duty) which traffic (freight/goods) cops (incurs/is liable to) on departure (when it’s sent out/exported). Everything revolves around words in the clue not meaning what they appear to mean.

      >>> Dons crash helmet, ducks behind armour-plated sofa.

      • Ann Dovekey
        Posted October 19, 2009 at 12:49 pm | Permalink

        Brilliant!! Thanks again.

  10. Andy
    Posted October 18, 2009 at 8:30 am | Permalink

    Hi.
    I’m a bit behind the times on this discussion (holiday combined with living in “the land down under’). Great, and truly fascinating, article Anax. Really enjoyed it. Do you have a favourite grid? Are certain grids easier than others as the clues are solved, or is the overall difficulty of the solely in your hands as compiler?
    Andy

    • Posted October 18, 2009 at 9:42 pm | Permalink

      Thanks Andy.
      I don’t have favourite grids but there a few Times ones I tend to avoid because I think their unch patterns favour the setter slightly – and a couple of others feature four interlocking 15-letter answers, which can be tough; not because they’re difficult to fill but because limited choice for filling the fourth can result in being forced into a laboured clue. Other Times setters have evidently had similar problems, hence the recent introduction of 7 new grids which avoid long answers altogether. So far I haven’t bothered setting on these as I think the challenge of writing at least one very good long-answer clue is worth rising to.
      As for difficulty of clues I try to strike a balance. The first half dozen or so clues I know are likely to be fairly hard as they’re the ones I’ve spotted the best ideas for, but I try to keep an eye on the positions of these and “ease off” on clues whose answers crosscheck them, to (hopefully) give solvers as many starting letters as possible.

  11. C. G. Rishikesh
    Posted October 21, 2009 at 2:52 am | Permalink

    Readers of Anax’s article might be interested in the following write-up on constructing an original crossword grid:

    http://www.crosswordunclued.com/2009/10/make-your-own-crossword-grid.html

    (I am the author of the piece and another allied article.)

    • Posted October 21, 2009 at 10:11 am | Permalink

      Nice one Rishi – very interesting article! It sort of pre-empts one I’m about to write, although it may be worth mentioning here the difference (for me at least) between using a preset and a self-designed grid. I never design a grid before I start to fill it. I’ll have a list of two or three answers I’d like to place because I’ve got good clues for them and, starting with – generally – an O/O grid, I’ll seek out spots where I can hopefully get at least two to crosscheck. From this point I can start to place filler blocks which tend, from a fairly early stage, to dictate how the rest of the design falls into place.
      I’ll post something here when the article is complete.

    • Posted October 21, 2009 at 10:23 am | Permalink

      Welcome to the blog Rishi

      Rishi blogs the FT every week on fifteensquared, as Shuchi, and is well known in “Crosswordland”.

      • C. G. Rishikesh
        Posted October 21, 2009 at 11:12 am | Permalink

        Shuchi who blogs the FT crossword every Friday on fifteensquared is a different person. She lives in Bangalore.

        I blogged the FT crossword every Tuesday for over a year and also Everyman for a few weeks before I stepped down to make room for others.

        The article I wrote was a guest post on Shuchi’s blog Crossword Unclued.

        Rishi

        • Posted October 21, 2009 at 11:18 am | Permalink

          Sorry about the confusion – I new you had done the blogs and thought I had followed the right links!

  12. C. G. Rishikesh
    Posted October 21, 2009 at 11:23 am | Permalink

    I too love to design a grid as I go along . But, how many newspapers allow that sort of freedom to the crossword setters?

    However, I was fortunate in enjoying this licence when I contributed some 100 crosswords to a sports magazine in India. As it was a thematic crossword (with all words from the Sportsworld – not the magazine but the field as a whole) I followed the very method that you mention above. Each grid was unique. Though it was several years ago, it was a period when printing technology had brought about drastic changes in the way journalists worked.

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